Democracy in Action: Impact Design Education at Malmö
As part of our Shaping Design Through Education feature series we’ve been exploring the many different ways impact design education is being practiced around the world. anNa Seravalli is a senior lecturer in product design at Malmö University’s School of Arts and Communication in Malmö, Sweden – a pioneering institution dedicated to pressing the boundaries of design for social impact. anNa spoke with Impact Design Hub about connecting the global and local through education, and how design needs more than magic toolboxes, and more than designers.
IDH: For our education series, we’ve been investigating various approaches to the teaching and training of impact designers – both methods and underlying philosophies. Can you tell us what’s unique about Malmö’s approach and whether it represents any broader regional way of doing things?
The School of Arts and Communication at Malmö University was created as a kind of digital Bauhaus – the political is very important, and we try to focus on how design can be used as a critical force in society. Our program comes out of the Scandinavian participatory design model of the 1970’s. At that time in Sweden, and other Scandinavian countries, information technology was just starting to make inroads into the workspace, leading to tensions among the workforce – since technology was seen as a possible threat to workers’ jobs. So a group of designers started working collaboratively with computer programmers and workers to create technologies and models that would support workers rather than supplant them. It was about democracy in the workplace, about empowerment. The idea was to give workers the ability to have a say in the shaping of their workplace.
Since then participatory design has been developed in different forms. In the United States it would be called co-design, and its political aspects tend to be less stressed. But in some Scandinavian universities the democratic concern has remained central and over the last 10 years or so – and particularly here at Malmö – we’ve been applying participatory design approaches not only in the workplace, but in public arenas such as city planning and the fight to combat income inequality.
IDH: So what does that look like in action? Can you tell us a little more about the structure of your program and how the philosophy you described translates to pedagogy?
Most of the impact design education we do happens in our Masters in Interaction Design program. We also have two “free-study” courses that anyone can take as long as they have a bachelor’s degree. This is interesting because we get students from different backgrounds – they have to work in collaborative groups and with a diverse range of backgrounds and projects. But in both cases, the push in our educational model is for real-life projects, working with external stakeholders such as municipalities and grassroots organizations.
We emphasize project work over lectures – teaching through practice and having students reflect on their own work. Our approach is heavily influenced by Donald Schon’s ideas on design education, like those he explores in his book, “Educating The Reflective Practitioner.” We don’t work according to a hard and fast plan and we try to avoid providing students with prescriptive methods. There is no magic toolbox.
Students always say the last course they take to complete the masters – Design for Social Innovation – is the most complex. The task is to collaborate with multiple actors: NGOs, civil servants etc. You have to immerse yourself within complex systems and determine how to navigate them. We teach by exposing students to the complexity of these structures. The challenge is that designers are usually trained to work with materials but in these kinds of projects you also work with people – it’s social material so to speak.
IDH: But without a “magic toolbox” or a more defined framework, isn’t every interaction different? How do you define best practices in that context? And how do you define impact?
Impact design education is a real struggle because projects need to be long-term to really be effective – on the scale of years. We spend a great deal of energy exploring the best ways to get students involved in the field. Most of the time we bring them in on an ongoing research project, but try to find a smaller part of it for them to experiment with. The challenge is that the structure of education is semesters and three-month courses, and working with actors in the community requires so much trust and longer time frames. We absolutely struggle with this. Students see only a small part of the process; they often don’t see the outcomes.
Both we and the students are also wrestling with what it means to be a designer in these contexts. These processes challenge how designers think of themselves, and how they get credit for things. Education is about emerging as an individual and the making of something, but here we see increasingly that it’s more important to understand how to support and instill ownership in others; and not necessarily to make something new but to find opportunities to connect within existing systems. Designers can come in with ideas and proposals but it’s more about instilling ownership in community actors, or perhaps finding a way towards co-ownership with them. But this is a kind of work and ability which is difficult to articulate and present. How do you fit that kind of project in a portfolio? To be honest, we haven’t been able to answer this question yet.
I sometimes wonder if design should be dealing with these issues at all. Traditional design education doesn’t focus on social issues for the most part, on issues of power and complex social systems for example. In our courses we provide students with just a glimpse of what working with social issues entails, otherwise the risk is they could get overwhelmed. You can’t just throw students in situations that they are unable to understand and deal with, where the level of need might seem beyond what design can address.
Interaction design masters students running an Arduino workshop with school children in Malmö
IDH: So how do we deal with these wicked problems, with that level of complexity and need? Do you think your experience at Malmö offers any insights into how design education has to change to create more profound impact?
What we’ve discovered is that these are challenges on a global scale. Our masters program in interaction design has a highly international profile; it brings in students from all over the world. The issues we’re dealing with are by no means unique, whether it’s immigration, integration, population shifts, or changes in the patterns of production. We try to get all our students to think about what the big global issues are but also to consider the local perspective and how to work with stakeholders at the community level. We also see the need for design education to connect to other fields with longer traditions of dealing with social issues. It’s not enough to have a bunch of designers. You need people from different backgrounds. That’s why the free-study courses are so useful – it’s harder to manage, but the students leave more equipped to deal with complexity.
That need for connection and diversity is global too. As our students become more international, we grow increasingly aware of how these design and educational challenges are common throughout the world and how we need international collaboration to address them. DESIS – a group that I helped found – is an attempt to try and bring international social impact design educators together, to share knowledge and expertise. We’ve grown to more than 50 affiliated programs at universities on six continents in just a few short years. And what we’ve learned is that it’s not just the social and design challenges that are similar; it’s the educational challenge as well. Whether it’s Malmö or an impact design program at a university in China, Latin America, Africa, or the United States, we’re all grappling with the same question: how do you teach this?
Images courtesy of aNna Seravalli and Malmö University.